کدو مسما Squash Soft Rind

Squash Soft Rind

Maturity Indices

Summer squashes (soft-rind) are consumed at a range of physiological maturities but are defined as immature fruits of the diverse Cucurbitaceae family. Depending on cultivar and temperature, the time from flowering to harvest may be 45 to 60 days for zucchini, yellow straightneck or crookneck, and scallop (Patty Pan-type) squash and 75 days or more for many of the Sponge squash (immature gourds) such as Luffa. Fruit may be harvested at a very immature stage, at the desired fruit size, before seeds begin to enlarge and harden. A thin, soft external rind and external glossiness are also indicators of a pre-maturity condition. The entire fruit is edible, either raw or cooked, without removal of seeds and seed cavity tissue. Small, young fruit are tender and generally have a slightly sweet taste.

Quality Indices

Summer squash quality is based on uniform shape, tenderness of rind and internal tissue, overall firmness, a glossy skin color, and an intact well-trimmed stem portion. Uniformity of shape is an important quality factor and is defined to be characteristic of the type or variety, and free of twisting, groves, or other disproportionate growth defects. Size is not part of the United States Standard for grades but may be contractually specified as minimum or maximum diameter or length or both. Additional quality indices are freedom from growth or handling defects (discoloration, cuts bruises, abrasions, pitting) freedom from decay, and an absence of yellowing on dark green varieties. U.S. Grades are No. 1 and No. 2 ( effective Jan. 6, 1984)

Optimum Temperature

5° – 10°C (41°- 50°F); 95% R.H.e Summer squashes are not stored, ideally, for longer than 10 days. Zucchini squash has been stored at 5°C with acceptable market quality for up to two weeks. Storage at below 5°C for more than 3-4 days will generally result in chilling injury. Visual and sensory quality deteriorate and surface pitting and discoloration or browning progress rapidly following chilling injury . Shriveling, yellowing, and decay are likely to increase following storage beyond two weeks, especially upon removal to typical retail conditions.

Chilling Injury

Summer squash are chilling sensitive at temperatures below 5°C(41°F) if held for more than a day or two. Varieties vary in their chilling sensitivity (see table under special considerations). Consequences of chilling injury are water-soaked pitting, discoloration, and accelerated decay. Chilling injury is cumulative and may be initiated in the field prior to harvest.

Rates of Respiration Production

Temperature

0°C(32°F)

5°C(41°F)

10°C(50°F)

15°C(59°F

20°C(68°F)

ml CO2/kg·hr1

6-7

7-10

17-18

37-45

42-48

1To calculate heat production multiply ml CO2/kg·hr by 440 to get Btu/ton/day or by 122 to get kcal/metric ton/day.

Rates of Ethylene Production

0.1 – 1.0µl / kg·hr at 20°C (68°F)

Responses to Ethylene

Summer squash varities are low to moderately sensitive to exogenous ethylene. Acceleratede yellowing of green types will result from low levels of ethylene during distribution and short-term storage

Responses to Controlled Atmospheres

Controlled or modified atmosphere storage or shipping offer little benefit to summer squash quality maintenance. Low O2levels (3-5%) delay yellowing in dark green varieties and delay the onset of decay by a few days. Zucchini tolerates elevated CO2 (less than or equal to 10%) but storage life is not greatly extended. Elevated CO2(greater than or equal to 5%) has been reported to reduce chilling sensitivity in zucchini.

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